Who is a Hindu?

 

by - Sadhvi Bhagawati Saraswati, PhD

Countless people across the world ask me : “Have you converted to Hinduism?” The question is understandable. After all, people don’t often behold an American woman of Jewish ancestry draped in the saffron robes of a Hindurenunciant.

However, although the question is simple, the answer is complex.Hinduism doesnot convert.  It does not exist in a box with borders and boundaries. There are more differences between lineages within Hinduism than there are between Hinduism and some other religions.

If one were to ask several Hindus, “What is the most fundamental tenet of Hinduism?” or “How is God understood in Hinduism?”one would get a wide range of equally viable, equally legitimate answers.  In fact, two of the most fundamental teachings of Hinduism are “Let all the noble thoughts come from all directions,” and “The Truth is one but the sages call it by different names.”

So, what exactly is Hinduism, then, that is open enough to embrace an American sanyasi?

Nowhere in the Vedas – the foundational texts of Hindu theology – does one find the word Hindu.  Rather, “Hindu” is actually the name given to the people living beyond the banks of the Sindhu or the Indus River, in what was known as the Indus valley civilization. Hindus refer to their religion as Sanatan Dharma, the eternal way of life.  This way of life encompasses everything from a philosophical understanding of the nature of the universe and our role in it, to treatises on science, math, music, architecture and medicine.

The “religion” of Hinduism, if one wanted to attempt to neatly box it up, could be said to include several components.

The first of these is inclusivity. Hinduismexcludes almost nothing. The arms of Hinduism are immeasurably long and embrace innumerable names, forms and concepts of the Divine.  However, worshippers of varying Divine manifestations all agree on one essential component: the Supreme Reality is infinite, omniscient, omnipresent, and knowable by all names.

As God is infinite and all of creation a manifestation of the same Creator, Hindus see the whole world as onefamily.  In fact, the scriptures state clearly:  VasudhaivKutumbakam, or “The world is one family.”  Hindu prayers are prayers for all; Hindusdon’t pray for Hindus or Indians.  Rather, Hindus pray,

Sarvebhavantusukhinah
Sarvesantuniraamayaah

Sarvebhadraanipashyantu
Maakaschitduhkhabhaagbhavet

 

It means, “May all be happy, may all be healthy, may all behold that which is good and auspicious, may no one suffer.”

Another aspect is that of a personal relationship with God. Regardless of the name, form in which a Hindu believes, he or she is encouraged to havea personal connection with that particular form.  The God of Hinduism is a God who is knowable, approachable, infinite and yet fully prepared to incarnate in material form, a God to whom our food, water, earnings and lives are dedicated.

 

One common misconception of Hinduism is that it is polytheistic. With so many images, it is understandable that people would assume that each image is  a separate God. However, Hinduism is very much a monotheistic religion, in which that one, infinite Supreme Reality is manifest in all of creation. The first line of the Isopanishads reminds us:

 

Ishaavaasyamidamsarvam

yatkimcajagatyamjagat 

 

It means the entire universe is pervaded by the divine. That same all-pervasive Supreme Reality manifests in infinite forms with infinite names.  In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna explains beautifully, “By whatever name and form the devotee worships me with love, I appear to the devotee in that form.”

 

For this reason, Hindu practices emphasize ahimsa or nonviolence toward humans, animals and Mother Nature.  A large majority of Hindus are vegetarians, avoid leather, pray to and for Mother Nature, and have rituals surrounding the ways and times that one may pick flowers, fruits or otherwise injure a living plant.

 

Stemming from the tenet of an all-pervasive God, one of the core components of the Hindu tradition is service, seva, or karma yoga.   Hinduism teaches us to see God in the poor, sick, and needy; the tradition is filled with stories of God appearing as an unexpected guest or a beggar..

Most Hindu organizations have large socialservice programs engaged in a wide range of charitable activities. Service is seen as one of the highest forms of worship.

As the traditional name of Hinduism is Sanatan Dharma or “eternal way of life” the tenets and principles of Hinduism are not relegated only to worship or prayer. Rather, Hinduism informs every aspect of our lives from the moment we awakento the moment we sleep.  There are shastras and sutras for nearly every component of life,as well as for architecture, medicine, science, math and music.

Hinduism, in the words of Pujya Swami ChidanandSaraswatiji, “is not a weekend business.” A Hindu’s actions are governed by spiritual laws in the home  and in the workplace as well as in the temple.

Another central and unique aspect of Hinduism is emphasis on the divine feminine, or Shakti, as the essential energy and force through which creation, sustenance and dissolution are performed.  Worship of the Divine Mother – whether in Her nurturing, compassionate form or in Her fierce, fiery form – is a common thread that weaves through the entire tapestry of Hinduism.

However, it is not only the Feminine in Her ethereal, celestial role that is worshipped, it is the feminine in her human form.We are exhorted by the scriptures to hold women in the highest ideal: “Wherever women are adored and respected, there the Gods are happy.”

As news reports cover the rape and abuse of girls and women throughout India, people misconstrue this as a subjugation of the female endorsed by Hindu culture.  The abuse of women is a societal evil which must be swiftly eradicated.  However, it couldn’t be further from the very tenets of Hinduism.

 

Encyclopedia of Hinduism

To make the tenets and truths of Hinduism available to both Hindus and non-Hindus, Pujya Swami ChidanandSaraswatiji founded the Encyclopedia of Hinduism project.  Conceived near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at the Hindu-Jain Temple in Monroeville which PujyaSwamiji founded, the Encyclopedia of Hinduism became a more-than-two-decade journey of love, faith, penance and austerity.

Prior to the publication of the encyclopedia, there was no comprehensive, authentic, authoritative source of reference on Hinduism; therefore there has been much misunderstanding and many misconceptions about this ancient, yet timeless, tradition.

The Encyclopedia, has now finally been completed, presented to the President of India, launched in India by the Vice President of India and Mananiya Shri Mohan Bhagwatji, launched in the UK by the Prime Minister of Great Britain and launched academically in the United States, at the University of South Carolina by the Governor of South Carolina. The full encyclopedia comprises 11 gorgeous volumes of more than 600 pages each, totaling approximately 7000 unique entries of the depth and breadth of the Hindu culture, history and civilization.

For more information see www.theencyclopediaofhinduism.com

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